Small solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere. Ashes e.g. from wildfires or vocanic eruptions, factory fumes, dust, pollen or spray are aerosols.
Human impact on the environment.
A gaslayer sorrounding our planet. The main components of the atmosphere are nitrogen (78,08%) and oxygen (20.95%), argon (0.93%).
- beaufort wind chart
beaufort wind chart
Scale to estimate the storm force. On the numerical scale, the storm forces range from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane).
small animal living on the ocean floor, lake or river ground are referred to as benthos.
substances and products to avoid or destroy vermin such as rat poison.
diversity of life.
Ice-covered areas of the Earth or other planets.
Bowl-shaped depressions in karst areas.
- drift velocity
the velocity of the continental plates can be determined by GPS-measurements (Global Positioning System).
The epicentre is located on the Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's hypocentre. This is the place in the Earth's crust where the fracture begins to spread across the fracture face.
Removal of soil by wind, water or ice.
Research on ice/glaciers.
- induced seismicity
Induced seismicity are usually minor earthquakes and tremors caused by human activites such as drilling, mining, construction activities.
- Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
The dominant wind systems close to the equator are the trade winds blowing from the east. They are connected to ascending warm and moist air close to the equator, where the solar radiation is strongest. The trade winds at the surface converge together in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Due to the ascending air masses and the connected drop in pressure close to the ground, an area with low pressure, known as the Equatorial Trough, is formed. At around 30° north and south, the air is descending. This decent warms and dries the air, thus forming the large desserts around the globe. The whole circulation with ascent over the ITCZ and descent in the so-called horse latitudes is called the Hadley circulation.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
A scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations (UN). They are providing objectiv information on the climate change.
- invasive species
Plant or animal that is not native to a specific location. Often they supersede native species.
- jet stream
Fast flowing air currents. The major jet streams on Earth are westerly winds (from west to east).
Term for volcanic rock melt. See also magma
Liquid rock material in the Earth crust. Magma can be more than 1,000 °C hot. See also lava.
- mantle convection
Temperature differences in the interior of the Earth cause convection currents in the Earth's mantle. It rises as hot liquid rock material and as far as it cools down its downwelling again.
Permafrost is frozen all year round. The temperature of such soils must remain below zero for at least two years. Permafrost regions cover 25 per cent of the Earth’s surface. Above all, these frozen landscapes characterize large areas in Siberia, Canada and Alaska. In Central Siberia the soil can freeze down to a depth of more than 1,200 metres.
A process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Indirect climate witnesses obtained from archives such as tree trunks, pollen, ice or sediment cores.
- radar altimetry
The principle is that the altimeter emits a radar wave and analyses the return signal that bounces off the surface. Altimetry measurements can be used to determine sea ice thickness and surface topography.
- ring of fire
ring of fire
The Pacific ring of fire surrounds the Pacific from South, Central and North America to the Aleutian trench continues to Kamchatka, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia to New Zealand. These plate boundaries are often characterized by subduction zones, regions where the heavy oceanic crust subduct (dives) unter the continental crust. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are the consequences.
- sea ice
Frozen sea water.
The stratosphere is the second layer of Earth's atmosphere. Above the troposphere and below the mesosphere.
Characteristic of seawater, to change the density as a result of temperature or salinity variations.
The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere see also atmosphere.
Japanese word for "harbour wave"; a tsunami is a series of waves through the whole water column, caused by a displacement of a large volume of water.
Poor vegetation zone in subpolar areas. The tundra takes about 3-4% of the Earth's surface mainly in the northern hemisphere. The average temperature of the warmest month is between 0 °C and 10 °C.
A tropical cyclone that develops in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean
Inability of the society/environment to withstand the effects of a hostile environment